How can the burden of cardiovascular disease be reduced?
The World Health Organization has identified “best” interventions that are very cost-effective interventions that can be implemented even in low-resource settings in the prevention and control of the cardiovascular disease. It includes two types of interventions: those that are implemented at the population scale and those that are implemented at the individual level that is recommended to be used together to reduce the greatest burden of disease from cardiovascular disease.
Examples of population-wide interventions that can be implemented to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease include:
Comprehensive tobacco control policies
Taxes to reduce the intake of foods high in fat, sugar, and salt
Building walking and cycling paths to increase physical activity
Strategies to reduce the harmful use of alcohol
Providing healthy meals for children in schools
At the individual level, to prevent the first heart attacks and strokes, individual healthcare interventions should be directed towards people at risks ranging from moderate to high overall risk of cardiovascular disease, or towards persons exposed to levels of a single risk factor that exceed the recommended treatment thresholds. , Such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and blood cholesterol, prevention of the first heart attacks and strokes.
The first intervention (an integrated approach that includes overall risks) is more cost-effective than the second intervention and has the ability to significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease. This approach is feasible in low-resource primary health care settings, including care by non-physician health workers.
For secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in people who already have it, including diabetes, treatment with the following drugs is required:
- ACE inhibitors
- And statins
The benefits of these interventions are largely independent, but when used together with smoking cessation, recurrent events can be prevented by 75%. There are currently significant gaps in the implementation of these interventions, especially at the primary health care level.
In addition, treatment of cardiovascular disease sometimes requires expensive surgery. These operations include:
- Coronary artery bypass
- Balloon vascular grafting (where a small balloon-shaped device is inserted into an artery to open the blockage)
- Valve Repair and Replacement
- Heart transplant
- Artificial heart transplants
- And requires the treatment of some diseases of the heart and blood vessels by the use of
medical devices. These devices include pacemakers, replacement valves, and patches to bridge holes in the heart.
What are the common symptoms of cardiovascular disease?
Symptoms of a heart attack or stroke
In most cases, there are no symptoms that indicate the occurrence of underlying diseases affecting the blood vessels. A heart attack or stroke may be the first warning of the occurrence of these diseases. Symptoms of a heart attack include:
Pain or discomfort in the center of the chest;
Pain or discomfort in the arms left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back.
In addition, one may experience difficulty breathing or shortness of breath; Nausea or vomiting, dizziness or fainting; And cold sweat; Pallor of the face. Among the symptoms that women experience in particular is shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and back or jaw pain.
The most common symptom of a stroke is sudden weakness in the face, arm, or leg, and this usually occurs on one side of the body. Another symptom is a sudden feeling of the following:
- Numbness of the face, arm, or leg, specifically on one side of the body;
- Confusion or difficulty speaking or understanding other people’s speech;
- Difficulty seeing with one or both eyes;
- Difficulty walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination;
- Severe headache without apparent cause;
- And fainting or losing consciousness.
- People who exhibit these symptoms should seek medical attention immediately.
What is rheumatic heart disease?
Rheumatic heart disease is caused by damage to the heart valves and the heart muscle due to inflammation and scarring caused by rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever occurs as a result of the body’s unusual response to an infection caused by streptococcus bacteria, which usually begins with sore throats or tonsillitis in children.
Rheumatic fever affects mainly children in developing countries, especially in regions where poverty is widespread. Rheumatic heart disease is due to about 2% of global deaths due to cardiovascular disease.
Symptoms of rheumatic heart disease?
Symptoms of rheumatic heart disease include: shortness of breath, fatigue, irregular heartbeat, pain in the center of the chest, and fainting
Symptoms of rheumatic fever include fever, joint pain and swelling, nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting.